Jane Allyn Piliavin- Sociology at UW Madison, bascom graphic

Sociology 357: Methods of Sociological Inquiry

Lecture 1

Summer, 2019

Room 6116 Sewell Social Science

MTWR 1:10-2:25

Professor Jane Allyn Piliavin

Office Hours: MW 2:45-5:00 and by appointment on Friday

Phones: 262-4344(O), 513-5188(C)

Office: 2444 Social Science
EMAIL: jane.piliavin@wisc.edu  

Detailed schedule: We will meet MTWR from June 17-August 8.

This is a basic course in how to do social science research and how to evaluate the research of others. It assumes no background in research methods or statistics. It provides a general overview of the ways sociologists collect information about social phenomena with a special emphasis on what can be done to yield information that is trustworthy and useful for our theoretical understanding of social life. If you have had any other research methods courses you will probably find this course to be too elementary and should discuss alternatives with me.

There are several basic goals I hope to achieve in this course:

  1. to introduce you to the elements of research design so that you will have a good foundation for future learning,
  2. to teach you how to read a research report with a critical eye, so that you can know how trustworthy its information is,
  3. to convince you that research is not an esoteric or arcane activity that can be performed only by slightly eccentric professors, but rather a relatively straightforward, systematic set of procedures by which you can get answers to questions you have,
  4. to teach you the limitations and problems of doing research into human behavior and therefore the caution that is necessary in drawing broad conclusions on the basis of any one study, and
  5. to show you that doing research can, indeed, even be fun, in the same way that learning about the world was fun for you before they spoiled it by making you do it in school.

I have designed this course to achieve the following instructional objectives designated as priorities by the Department of sociology:

  1. Conduct Research and Analyze Data (quantitative or qualitative). Although professional-quality research requires graduate-level training, we expect that all undergraduate majors will be able to conduct small-scale research in which they formulate a research question, collect data, analyze results, and draw conclusions.
  2. Critically Evaluate Published Research. Sociology graduates will be able to read and evaluate published research as it appears in academic journals and popular or policy publications.

Required Texts

There are two required texts for the basic course:

  • S Schutt, R.K. Investigating the Social World. 2009. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 6th edition (paper). A basic text in how to do social research. They are available quite reasonably on Amazon.com, both new and used, as well as at University Bookstore.
  • G Golden, M.P. The Research Experience. Itasca, Ill: F.E. Peacock, 1976. (paper) A collection of sociological research reports coupled with behind-the-scenes discussions of what really happened in the research. The articles are antiques; you will learn some 60's history as well. The book is no longer in print (although some used copies may be available on Amazon, etc.), so the assigned chapters are on electronic reserve in the social science reading room, each one under the name of the chapter author.

In addition, there are instructions for the exercises, and other illustrative materials, which you must print out from my website. All of the chapters from Golden that I want you to read will be available through the website by simply clicking on the title. There are a few other readings that will be accessible the same way.

Requirements and Grading

Your grade is based principally on three data collection exercises : a field observation (15%), a small questionnaire (20%), and an experiment (20%), and on an article analysis (25%). Details on these four assignments are given on the website. The last 20% of your grade is based on how much of the assigned homework you do (15%) and on your comments on the lectures and readings (5%).

The homework assignments are given in the syllabus. Homework will be skimmed and graded "1" if you really answered it, ".5" if your tried but it is incomplete, and "0" if you really didn't try. The goal of assigning homework is that you will have done the assigned reading and thought about it before you come to class. Thus, it must be clear from what you write that you actually read the assigned material: vague comments that make no specific reference to the reading are not acceptable. To receive credit, the homework must be submitted at the beginning of class on the day it is due. If you omit no more than two of the 13 assignments, you will receive an A for the homework portion of your grade. If you do fewer than half of the assignments, you will receive an F. Between these extremes, you will receive a pro-rated grade. Late homework will be accepted for half credit only when there is clear justification, and even then, only at the next class meeting after the original due date. (Exceptions may be made for catastrophes.) Absence from class is not a sufficient justification for late homework; you may submit homework early in anticipation of an absence.

At the end of each Tuesday and Thursday class, I will collect "comment cards", on which you may ask general questions, make comments, and ask for clarifications regarding lectures and readings. Please purchase a package of 3 X 5 index cards for the purpose of writing the comments.I will not accept other sizes of cards or strips of paper. I will read these and may use them to structure later classes. Again, you will receive a grade based on how many cards with comments you turn in. Just a card with your name on it will not suffice; this is not just a sneaky way of taking attendance in lecture (although it does give me some information about that). I strongly suggest that you keep a journal of questions and comments as they occur to you as you read and as you sit in class (perhaps in a small notebook or pad). This can help you decide what to put on your comment cards; it can also serve as a record for you of what you have and haven't figured out, if you go back over it now and then. Do not use the cards to ask questions specific only to your research projects. Ask those in office hours or after class.

I would like to stress that you can get an A for 20% of your grade simply by doing mechanical things having to do with comments and homework. This can make a big difference in your final grade.

There is a great deal of work to do in this course. The subject matter requires an active rather than a passive stance toward learning. The way to learn research methods is to read real research reports and get your hands dirty doing real data collection. The homework is an integral part of the class, for it is the vehicle for learning to read a research report. All these activities take time and effort, but there are no shortcuts. I hope you will find at least some of what you do to be fun; at least you should not be able to complain that all you were asked to do was to spit back what the professor said.

In order to insure that students are paying attention in class, cell phones must be turned off and no laptops are to be used, unless we are doing things with data or you have seen me with a reason.


Please send me an email by the end of the first week of the course if you are eligible for special arrangements or accommodations for assignments or other aspects of the course. This may be the case if English is your second language or you experience a physical or psychological condition that makes it difficult for you to complete assignments without some modification of those tasks. Accommodations are provided for students who qualify for disability services through the McBurney Center. Their website has detailed instructions about how to qualify: http://www.mcburney.wisc.edu/. Provide a copy of your accommodations request (VISA) to the instructor by the end of the second week of class. We try to reserve rooms and proctors by the third week in class, so we must know of all accommodations by then.

If you wish to request a scheduling accommodation for religious observances, send an email by the end of the second week of the course stating the specific date(s) for which you request accommodation; campus policy requires that religious observances be accommodated if you make a timely request early in the term. See the university's web page for details:


Academic honesty

As with all courses at the University of Wisconsin, you are expected to follow the University=s rules and regulations pertaining to academic honesty and integrity. The standards are outlined by the Office of the Dean of Students at http://www.students.wisc.edu/doso/academic-integrity/

According to UWS 14, academic misconduct is defined as:

  • Seeks to claim credit for the work or efforts of another without authorization or citation (plagiarism)
  • Uses unauthorized materials or fabricated data in any academic exercise (using notes for a closed‑book online exam)
  • Forges or falsifies academic documents or records (having a friend sign you in for attendance when you're absent)
  • Intentionally impedes or damages the academic work of others (tampering with another student's experiment)
  • Engages in conduct aimed at making false representation of a student's academic performance (altering test answers and submitting the test for regrading)
  • Assists other students in any of these acts

      For a complete description of behaviors that violate the University's standards as well the disciplinary penalties and procedures, please see the Dean of Students website. If you have questions about the rules for any of the assignments please ask your instructor.

Departmental notice of grievance and appeal rights.

     The Department of Sociology regularly conducts student evaluations of all professors and teaching assistants near the end of the semester. Students who have more immediate concerns about this course should report them to the instructor or to the chair, James Raymo, 8128 Social Science (Chair@wisc.edu).

Procedural Matters

Class sessions will involve a mixture of lectures and discussion. Some classes will include discussion and workshop-type experiences. You are responsible for obtaining information you miss if you are absent. Please obtain the telephone numbers and e-mail addresses of several class members so you can call or e-mail them if you miss class. I believe it is inappropriate to use office hours (or telephone calls) to compensate for instruction you missed more or less by choice. But if you are attending regularly and making the effort to learn (or if your absence is for reasons beyond your control), I will do all that I can to help you. Past students have suggested that I stress that the absence of formal examinations on the assigned reading does not mean that you don't need to do it. Some report learning too late in the term that the assigned readings and our discussions of them help you do a better job on the graded exercises and article analysis.

When we are working on one of the exercises always bring the instructions for it to class. Many students find that it works well to have a looseleaf binder in which both the instructions and other notes may be kept. Or get one of those spirals with big pockets for other materials. It is also useful to bring Golden when readings have been assigned from it. I sometimes get behind, so if I haven't covered a Golden reading, please continue to bring the book to class until I do.

I have given you my home phone number, because I want you to feel free to call me when you have questions. But please try to remember that when you have questions is when others do too -- when projects are due. For example, when writing up an exercise, please work all the way through the exercise, noting questions you have as you go. Then make ONE phone call to try to get the answers, rather than making a new call every time you get stumped. If you call during the day, call my office first. Cell reception on the 2nd floor is not good.


The exact pacing of topics from day to day will depend upon the flow of the class. HOMEWORK AND PROJECT DUE DATES GIVEN IN THE SYLLABUS ARE CORRECT, even if I do not remind you in class, unless a WRITTEN note on the blackboard or an e-mail message alters them. You are expected to check your e-mail; if you have not activated your account, please do so.

S refers to readings in the Schutt methods book. For example, S 7 refers to all of Schutt, Chapter 7. S, pp 100-105 means pages 100-105 only. G refers to readings in the Golden reader. The articles will be indicated by the author's name, e.g. G: Humphreys. In Golden, always read both the research report and the personal journal that follows it. There is a lot of material in the personal journals that will help you with your exercises; do not neglect them. Some of them are even entertaining.


The readings are given class by class. You should have read the material indicated or done the homework by the date shown. Deadlines for all assignments are indicated on the schedule. There is also a separate page that lists ALL of the deadlines.

Date Subjects, Readings, and Homework

Week 1: M June17

First Class. The usual introductory remarks. Introduction of Article Analysis as the overall framework for the course. It is strongly recommended that you have an approved article by July 8. This will be explained in class.

T 18

Begin Systematic Observation and Field Research. Read S 9. Read excerpt on crack research and the selections from Bosk, Forgive and Remember, and Duneier, Sidewalk, on doing field work. Also read the instructions for the observation exercise (15% of your grade) and think about what you might want to observe. Today you will form two-person groups for the observation exercise. Decide with your partner on the setting you will use for your observation. Between now and Monday, June 24, do your unstructured observations.

W 19

How to think like a social scientist; overview of research design. READ S 1; G 1. Discussion of theory, propositions, concepts, variables, and operational definitions. Process of research.

*R 20

Applying the basic concepts. Read G: Doob and Gross, "Status of Frustrator as an Inhibitor of Horn-honking Responses," and "How I Did It"


  1. Give the major independent variable and dependent variable in the Doob and Gross article; tell how each was measured (operationalized).
  2. State the major theoretical hypothesis of the research and the operational hypothesis that flows from it.
  3. See if you can construct the logical framework leading from the theory to the specific prediction. (Hint: This involves the "frustration-aggression hypothesis," the theoretical hypothesis, and the measurement assumptions, and it is not obvious.)
  4. Be prepared to discuss the results of this research, in terms of what it demonstrates (I never say "proves").

Week 2:

*M 24

Ethics of Research. Matters of ethics come up in all research but are especially acute in participant observation. Read S 3 (pp 67-88). Also go to and read the following website:


HOMEWORK #2: Turn in xerox copy of rough notes from unstructured observation. Bring the original to class. You will need it for the WORKSHOP today on interpreting unstructured observations and developing a hypothesis and structured observation design. Between today and Wednesday you will do your structured observation.


*T 25

Read G: Humphreys "Tearoom Trade" and "Methods".


  1. Discuss the methods of observation used by Humphreys. Would you call this participant or non-participant observation? Overt or covert?
  2. What methods in addition to observation did he use in this article?
  3. Briefly give your opinion of the ethics of the research reported in Humphreys' article. We will hold a debate in class.
*W 26

Analyzing Observational Data. Read S 14, writing a research report (pp. 486-525), skimming section on variance); S 15, (pp. 548-555). Discussion of observation exercise with emphasis on how you write up a research report and how you prepare a statistical table to summarize your results. Ideally you will have completed your structured data collection and have your data with you. WORKSHOP on data analysis and writeup of observation exercise.

* R 27

Lab sessions for hands on work with SPSS. In Microlab, 3218 Sewell Social Science Building. By today your observation report should be written up to the section on results. You should have your data collection completed and your data with you.

I will be available after lab as late as needed for consultation, either in the lab or in my office.

Week 3:

*M July 1


Begin surveys and index construction. Read S 3 ( pp. 117-130). S 8, Surveys (all). Start thinking about a topic for the questionnaire. I will lecture on particular types of question format. QUESTIONNAIRE EXERCISE DISCUSSED. Form groups OF 3 OR 4 for questionnaire exercise; begin to write questions to be completed and turned in on Friday, July 5 by 4:30.

T 2

Read Newman questionnaire as a NEGATIVE example: how NOT to write questions. This fake questionnaire was devised as a teaching tool to illustrate common mistakes made in writing questions. Pick out your two favorite lousy questions; I will discuss what makes a bad question. I will also give hints on writing good questions.

W 3

Read G: Ransford, "Isolation, Powerlessness, and Violence," and the personal journal.

HOMEWORK #4: Identify the major variables and how they were operationalized -- that is, what were the questions used to get at the ideas he was interested in, Add any comments you have about the subject matter or process of his research. We will discuss this article in detail in class.

* R 4

*** Happy 4th of July ***

*F 5 HOMEWORK #5: Drafts of typed questions due by 4:30 in my office or emailed by then in the form of a GoogleDoc, with a definition of your concept and its dimensions. Make sure all questions from your group are handed in together, even if you wrote them separately. It is OK to have several versions of your open-ended question if you can't decide.

Week 4:

*M 8

Sampling. Read S 5, Sampling. I will begin lecture on sampling.

Your question drafts returned with detailed comments. There will be some time in class to discuss with your group, but you should plan a meeting with your group today to deal with your revision. Send me a revised questionnaire as soon as possible. I will doubtless have further comments and corrections. Wait for my final OK before going into the field and collecting data. DO NOT PUT THIS OFF. Once you fix it one more time, your questionnaire should be ready for the field, and you should begin collecting data. At least half of the data needs to be collected by next Monday, July 15.

T 9


I will finish sampling lecture. Read "External Validity" section of Article Analysis in preparation for homework described on Wednesday. I will explain it further in class today.

*W 10

HOMEWORK #6: Apply article analysis section B: External Validity to the Ransford, the Humphreys, the Doob and Gross article, or your own approved article. If you choose to do an analysis of your own article, you will receive feedback on it from me, which should help you do a better job on your final article analysis. (You need to keep one copy of your article and turn one in, with your name on it, with the analysis, which must be typed. I willl give you feedback and return your analysis, but not my copy of the article.) See example article analysis here.

*R 11

Read S 4, (pp.130-142). The idea of construct validity. Read Rubin "Measurement of Romantic Love" and journal.


  1. Explain in your own words the relation between what Rubin is doing and the ideas of validity explained in your text.
  2. List three findings in his article that support the claim that his measure of "love" is valid.
  3. Comment very briefly on your feelings about this approach to measuring love.
Week 5: *M 15


*T 16

Lab sessions in Microlab for data entry and initial analysis of questionnaire data. You should have all of your data collected by now. Class may go late today. I will stay as late as necessary to help you.

*W 17

Read Section C: Construct Validity of Measures of Variables in Article Analysis in preparation for Thursday's homework. I will also explain how to do it in class.


*R 18

HOMEWORK #8: Apply Section C of the Article Analysis to either the Doob and Gross, the Ransford or your own article. Again, if you use your own article, you will receive comments on it. Discussion of this section of the article analysis as it relates not only to these articles but also to the questionnaire exercise.

Reread S 14 (pp.486-524) Carefully read the example of a student project in the Questionnaire Exercise writeup. I will hand out computer output that corresponds to the example, and I will discuss it. This is to prepare you to understand your own output, which I will return on Monday.

*F 19 HOMEWORK #9>>> SUBMIT COPIES OF YOUR DATA SHEETS AND CODE BOOKS AND information on location and name of your SPSS data file, syntax file, and output file with your frequency distributions no later than 4:30 P.M. Friday in my office or mailbox. I cannot analyze your data without the code book. If there is something unusual about your data you must explain what you want done with it.
Week 6: M 22

Read S 7, Experiments (all).

Computer analysis of questionnaire data returned. WORKSHOP on interpreting and reporting results. I will be available today after regular office hours for consultation. If you want reanalyses, you must request them by Thursday afternoon.

Over the weekend, you should have written a draft of the questionnaire exercise up to where the data analysis section begins, to save yourself time later.

* T 23

Read G : Darley and Batson, "From Jerusalem to Jericho" and the personal journal. Ignore the material on measures of religiosity (pp. 200-202).


  1. Identify the independent and dependent variables and tell how each was measured;
  2. Summarize the key findings. Focus on finding the relevant numbers, not just the words.
  3. What procedures were used to ensure internal validity of the findings, in terms of the logic of experiments? (Note: Although it does not say so explicitly, this is a randomized experiment.) Be prepared to discuss anything else that seems relevant.

Read Experiment Exercise. Begin discussing experimental design. Start thinking about an experiment.

W 24

Continue discussion of experiments, causation. Bring your ideas for experiments to class. There will be an experimental design workshop. You should then begin collecting data.

R 25

Read: Stern and Kalof, Chapter 3 Evaluating Social Science Research .Lecture and discussion on internal validity: How can you support a judgment that A is a cause of B? (As contrasted with B causing A, or other possibilities.)

Campbell & Stanley pre-, true, and quasi - experimental designs.

Week 7:

M 29


Read Article Exercise, Section D: Internal Validity; S: Appendix C, How to read a research article. Read article "Divorce among sociologists married to sociologists" and the student analysis of it. (The analysis precedes the article.) We do not have time for me to give you feedback on your own article on this section.

Discussion of threats to internal validity as they relate to the experiment exercise.

* T 30

Read G: Goldberg, "Misogyny and the College Girl," and the personal journal.


  1. Identify the independent and dependent variables and tell how each was measured,
  2. Summarize the key findings, again focusing on finding the relevant numbers.
  3. What procedures were used to ensure internal validity in this research? How is the design of this experiment different from that of the Darley and Batson study?

You should have a draft of the entire experiment report written up to the data analysis by now, and have half or more of your data collected. Data analysis and report write-up WORKSHOP today.

*W 31

Field experiments (what you are doing) have more external validity but more complex internal validity problems. Read G: Goldstein and Arms, "Effects of Observing Athletic Contests on Hostility," and the personal journal.

HOMEWORK #12: Identify the independent and dependent variables and tell what procedures were used to insure internal validity. Be critical. This is a very bad article.

* R Aug 1

Labs on analyzing experimental data. You know how to roster data by now. But we can go over appropriate statistical techniques for your data. You need to have all of your data by now.

Week 8:

*M 5

EXPERIMENT EXERCISE DUE today, at class time.

S 14, 525-533; read Babbie chapter,"The Elaboration model". Discussion of internal validity in connection with elaboration model. Questions about anything. Discussion of the elaboration model, third-variable analysis, and internal-external validity issues as they relate to your article analysis.

*T 6

Read Kasarda, "The Impact of Suburban Population Growth on Central City Functions" G 412 and the personal journal. HOMEWORK #13: What is the main point of this article? What is being controlled by the use of multiple regression? (In this case, it is just two-predictor regression.) Do not worry that you have not learned about regression in statistics. You do NOT need to know how to compute these statistics to be able to understand what they mean in tables.

W 7

Further discussion of elaboration model; some discussion of regression. Questions about article analysis.

R 8

END OF SEMESTER PARTY AND MINI-CONVENTION. Experiments returned. Reports on what you found in your experiments. Discussion of final grade based on computer projections. Attendance is required today. I will bring refreshments and I urge you to do the same.


I will have extended morning office hours the week of August 5 for questions concerning your article analyses.



If you need an extension on this time, I will be happy to negotiate it, but understand that it might lead to your getting an incomplete temporarily.


Questions? Comments? Please contact jane.piliavin@wisc.edu



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